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Research Extracts

We Leverage Scientific Knowledge To Generate Wealth

We supply high grade plant extracts.

Please see our list below. All extracts are standardized, and herbarium samples will be provided. We can also prepare specific fractions as per client's requirements.

We specialize supplying for biomedical, food, and cosmetic research purposes:

  • Standardized Plant Extracts
  • Research Grade Extracts
  • Biomedical Grade Extracts
  • Custom Extracts & Fractions
  • Food Grade Extracts
  • Supplements & Nutrition Extracts
  • Cosmetic Ingredient Extracts
  • High Grade Spices

LIST OF EXTRACTS

# Scientific Name Common Names
1

Acalypha indica L.

Family: Euphorbiaceae

English: Indian acalypha, Indian nettle, three-seeded mercury;

French: Ricinelle des Indes, oreille de chatte, herbe chatte

Malaysia: Rumput lislis, tjeka mas.

Indonesia: Lelatang, rumput kokosonga

Thailand: Tamyae tuaphuu, tamyae maeo (Central),haan maeo (Northern).

Philippines: Bugos (Tagalog), maraotong, taptapingar (Ilokano).

Sinhalese: Kuppameniya.

Vietnam: Tai t[uw][owj]ng [aas]n, tai t[uw][owj]ng xanh.

Tamil: Kuppaimeni.

2

Achyranthes aspera L.

Family: Amaranthaceae

Common names: Prickly Chaff Flower, Devil's Horsewhip

Sanskrit : Aghata; Khara-manjari; Apamarga

Hindi : Chirchira; Latjira, Onga[11]

Bengali : Apang

Gujarati : Safed Aghedo, "Anghadi", "Andhedi", "Agado"

Kannada : Uttaranee

Malayalam : Kadaladi; Katalati

Marathi : Aghada; Pandhara-aghada

Punjabi : Kutri

Tamil : Nayuruvi; Shiru-kadaladi

Telugu : Antisha; Apamargamu; Uttaraene (ఉత్తరేణి)

Sinhala : "Karal heba"; "කරල් හැබ"

Indonesia : Jarong

3

Acorus calamus L.

Family: Acoraceae

Common names: beewort, bitter pepper root, calamus root, flag root, gladdon, myrtle flag, myrtle grass, myrtle root, myrtle sedge, pine root, sea sedge, sweet cane, sweet case, sweet cinnamon, sweet grass, sweet myrtle, sweet root, sweet rush, and sweet sedge.

Sinhala : Wadakaha

4

Adhatoda vasica Nees

Family: Acanthaceae

Synonyms: A. zeylanica Medic.; Justicia adhatoda Linn.

Common names:

English: Malabar Nut, Vasaca.

Ayurvedic: Vaasaa, Vaasaka, Vaasikaa, Simhaasya, Simhaparni, Simhavadanaa, Vaajidanta, Vrisha, Aataruushaka.

Unani: Arusaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Aadaathodai.

Folk: Vasaakaa.

Bengali: বাসক পাতা;

Kannada: Aadumuttada;

Malayalam: ആടലോടകം ("aadalodakam")

Sanskrit: अडुसा adusa, aruha, अरुष arusha.

Sinhala: Adhatoda

5

Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.

Family: Rutaceae

Engish: Bengal quince, stone apple or wood apple

Burmese: ဥသျှစ် /ou' shi'/ or /oʊʔ ʃiʔ/

Indonesian: Maja

Khmer: ព្នៅ /pnɨv/

Lao: ໝາກຕູມ /mȁːk tuːm/

Malay: pokok maja batu (tree)

Thai: มะตูม /matuum/ (tree: ต้นมะตูม /ton matuum/; fruit ลูกมะตูม luug matuum)

South Asia

Assamese: বেল

Hindi: बेल (Sirphal)

Gujarati: બીલી

Urdu: (Bael)بیل, (Sirphal) سری پھل

Oriya: ବେଲ

Bengali: বেল

Kannada: ಬೇಲದ ಹಣ್ಣು

Konkani: gorakamli

Malayalam: കൂവളം

Marathi: बेल or कवीठ (Kaveeth)

Punjabi: Beel

Sanskrit : बिल्वम्

Sindhi: ڪاٺ گدرو

Sinhalese: බෙලි (Beli)

Tamil: வில்வம் (Vilvam)

Telugu: మారేడు (maredu)

Sir Phal (old Hindi)

6

Aerva lanata (L.) Juss.ex Schult.

Family: Amaranthaceae

Synonyms: Achyranthes lanata L.

Aerva elegans Moq.

Illecebrum lanatum (L.) Murr.[2]

Achyranthes villosa Forssk.

Aerva arachnoidea Gand.

Aerva incana Suess.

Aerva mozambicensis Gand.

Aerva sansibarica Suess.

Illecebrum lanatum (L.) L. [3]

Common names:

Bengali: Chaya

Hindi:Gorakhbuti or Kapuri jadi

Kannada: Bilesuli

Malayalam: Cherula

Marathi: Kapuri-madhura

Punjabi: Bui-kaltan (flowers as sold in bazaars)

Rajasthani: Bhui

Sanskrit: stmabayda

Sindhi: Bhui, Jari

Sinhalese: Pol pala

Tamil: Sirru -pulay –vayr

Telugu: Pinde-conda, Pindi-chetter

Trans-Indus: Asmei, Spirke, Sasai

7

Aloe vera Koen

Family: Asphodelaceae

Common names:

English: Aloe

Arabic: Musabar

Bengal: Ghritakumari, Kanya

Chinese: Lu Hui

French: Aloes

German: Aloe

Hidi: Ghiguvara, Ghikumari, Gvarapalha, kumari, kuvarapatha, Ghikunwar

Malay: Kattuvala, Kattarvala

Sanskrit: Adala, Ajara, Aniara, Ambudhisvara, Aphala, Bahupatri, Bhringeshta, Brahmaghni, Dirghapatrika, Grihakanya, Gritakumari, kantakani, Kanya, Kapila, rCumari, Mandala, Mata, Rama, Rasayani, Saha, Sthaleruha, Stluiladala, Sukantaka, Surasa, suvaha, larani, Vipulasrava, Vira

Sinhala: Komarika

Tamil: Angai, Angini

8

Alpinia calcarata

Family: Zingiberaceae

Common names: Snap Ginger, Cardamon ginger, Indian ginger

Hindi: कुलंजन Kulanjan

Malayalam: Aratta

Kannada: Chikkadumparaasme; Oriya: Toroni

Sanskrit: Rasna, सुगंधमूल Sugandhamoola, Kulanjana

Sinhalese: Heen aratta

Tamil: Allan

9

Alpinia galanga

Family: Zingiberaceae

Common names: Thai galangal; blue ginger or Thai ginger

Sinhalese: Maha aratta

Tamil: chittarattai

10

Alstonia scholaris (L.)R.Br.

Family: Apocynaceae

Synonyms: Echites scholaris L. Mant., Pala scholaris L. Roberty.

Common names: Blackboard tree, Indian devil tree, Ditabark, Milkwood pine, White cheesewood and Pulai;

Sinhalese: Rukattana

Tamil: Elilaippalai

11

Alysicarpus vaginalis (L.) DC.

Family: Fabaceae (alt. Leguminosae)

subfamily: Faboideae tribe: Desmodieae subtribe: Desmodiinae. Also placed in Papilionaceae.

Synonyms: Alysicarpus rupicola Edgew., Alysicarpus nummularifolius (L.) DC., Alysicarpus nummularifolius sensu auct., Alysicarpus nummularifolius (L.) DC. var. angustatus Ohwi, Alysicarpus vaginalis (L.) DC. var. diversifolius Chun, Hedysarum cylindricum Poiret, Hedysarum vaginale L.

Common names:

Malaysia: Akar seleguri.

English: Alyce clover, buffalo clover, one-leaf clover.

Indonesia: Brobos, gude oyod, tebalan (Java).

Philippines: Banig-usa, mani-manian (Tagalog).

Thailand: Thua lisongna.

Vietnam: Cây me dât, cây the the.

American: Alyce clover, buffalo clover, one-leaf clover.

Sinhalese : Aswanna

Tamil: Pullardi

12

Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees

Family: Acanthaceae

Common names:

Arabic: Quasabhuva

Assamese: Chiorta

Bahasa Indonesia: Sambiloto

Bengali: Kālmegh (কালমেঘ)

Chinese: Chuan Xin Lian (穿心蓮)

English: Green chirayta, creat, king of bitters, andrographis, India echinacea

Gujarati: કરિયાતુ (Kariyatu)

Hindi: Kirayat

Kannada: Nelabevu

Lao: La-Sa-Bee

Malay: Hempedu Bumi

Malayalam: NilavEpp (നിലവേപ്പ്), Kiriyathth (കിരിയത്ത്)

Marathi: kadu kirayata,Oli-kiryata

Oriya: ଭୂଇଁନିମ୍ବ (Bhuinimba)

Persian: Naine-havandi

Sanskrit: Kālamegha (कालमेघ), Bhūnimba (भूनिम्ब)[2]

Sinhalese: Hīn Kohomba / Heen Kohomba (හීන් කොහොඹ), meaning "small neem," or Hīn Bīm Kohomba / Heen Bim Kohomba(හීන් බිම් කොහොඹ)

Tamil: Nilavembu

Telugu: Nelavemaa (నేలవేము) or Nelavepu

Thai: Fa Thalai Chon (ฟ้าทะลายโจร)

13

Aristolochia indica L.

Family: Aristolochiaceae

Common names:

Indian birthwort, Dutchman's pipe

Hindi: īśvarmūl, īsarmūl

Indonesia: kalayar, puyan, kunit

Malayalam: karaḷayam, iśvaramulla, karaḷakam, garuḍakkoṭi

Malaysia: akar ketola hutan

Philippines: goan-goan, nagerus, timbangan

Sankrit: garalikā, īśvarī

Sinhalese: Sapsanda

Thailand: krachao mot, krachao pheemot

Tamil: īccuramūli, karuṭakkoṭi, Adagam

Vietnam: d[aaly kh[oos] r[as]ch, ph[of]ng k[yr]

14

Asparagus falcatus L.

Family: Asparagaceae

Synonyms: Protasparagus falcatus (L.) Oberm.

Common names: large forest asparagus, sicklethorn, yellowwood asparagus (Eng.); doringtou (Afr.); imblekazana (Zulu)

Sinhalese: Hathavariya

15

Asteracantha longifolia (L.) Nees

Family: Acanthaceae

Basionym: !Barleria longifolia L.Other combinations for !Barleria longifolia L.: *Hygrophila longifolia (L.) Kurz

Common names:

English: Hygrophila

Sanskrit: Kokilaksha, Ikshura, Ikshuraka, Chulli

Sinhalese: Neeramulliya

Tamil: Niramulli

16

Azadirachta indica A.Juss

Family: Meliaceae

Synonyms: Antelaea azadirachta (L.) Adelb.

English: neem,Indian Lilac

Punjabi: Nimm

Tamil: Vembu

Malayalam: Arya Veppu

Persian: Azad Dirakht

Sanskrit, Oriya: Nimba,Arishta,Picumarda

Gujarati: Limdo

Marathi : Kadu-Limba

Dongoyaro (in some Nigerian languages)

Arabic : Margosa, Neem (نيم)

Telugu: Nimtree, Vepu (వేపు), Vempu (வேம்பு), Vepa (వేప)

Kannada: Bevu( ಕಹಿ ಬೇವು

Konkani: Kodu nimb

Sinhala: කොහොඹ (Kohomba)

Burmese: Tamar sầu đâu,

Vietnamese: xoan Ấn Độ

ស្ដៅ (Sdao, Khmer)

สะเดา (Sadao, Thai)

אזדרכת (Hebrew)

Maliyirinin" (Bambara language)

Spanish: Paraiso

Swahili: Muarubaini

17

Bacopa monniera (L.)Wettst.

Family: Scrophulariacae

Common names: Waterhyssop, Brahmi, Thyme-leafed gratiola

Sinhalese: Lunuwila

18

Barleria prionitis L.

Family: Acanthaceae

Common names:

English: Porcupine flower

Hindi: Vijradanti

Sanskrit: kuranta

Marathi: vjradanti (वज्रदंती)

Sinahalese: Katukarandu

Tamil: Kodippachalai

19

Boerhavia diffusa L.

Family: Nyctaginaceae

Synonyms: Boerhavia adscendens, B. caribaea, B. coccinea, B. erecta, B. paniculata, B. repens, B.viscosa

Common names:

English: Spreading hogweed.

Thailand: Phak bia hin (Northern), nang kuu sae (Karen, Northern), phak khom hin (Central).

Philippines : Paanbalibis (Tagalog), katkatud, tabtabokol (Iloko).

Myanmar: Khomhin pak.

Vietnam: S[aa]m r[uwf]ng, s[aa]m d[aas]t, s[aa]mnam.

Papua New Guinea: Mamauri (Yule Island, Cen­tral Province).

Gujarati: Dholia-saturdo, Moto-satoda.

Hindi: Snathikari

Canarese: Kommegida

Marathi: Tambadivasu

Sanskrit: Punarnava, Raktakanda, Shothaghni, Varshabhu

Bengali: Punurnava

Sinhalese: Sarana

Tamil: Mukaratee-Kirei

Telugu: Punernava

20

Cannabis sativa L.

Marihuana (Tag.) Marijuana/ Hemp (Engl.), Ye ma (Chin.)

21

Cardiospermum halicacabum L.

Family: Sapindaceae

Common names:

balloon-vine (English, United States)

Bejuco colorado (Mexico)

dao di ling

heart-seed (English, United States)

Welpenela (Sinhalese)

22

Cassia alata L.

Family: Caesalpiniaceae

Synonyms:

Senna alata L. , Cassia alata var. perennis Pamp , Cassia alata var. rumphiana DC. , Cassia bracteata L. f. , Cassia herpetica Jacq. , Herpetica alata (L.) Raf.), Senna alexandrina Mill., Senna occidentalis (L.), Senna siamea (Lam.), Senna tora L.

Common names:

Malaysia: solok, gelenggang, ketepeng badak, rugan (Iban)

English: senna alata, candlestick, candelabra bush, candle bush, empress candle, candletree, ringworm tree, candlestick senna, wild senna, guajava,

Sinhalese: Attora

Tamil: Anjali

Thailand: chumhet thet

Others: akapulko, fleur palmiste, fleur dartre, flor del Secreto, Tarantana, akapulko, man-slabriki, akapulco

23

Cassia auriculata L.

Family: Caesalpiniaceae

Common names:

English: Tanner's Cassia or Avaram Senna.

Irula: Avarikai

Tamil: Aavaram

Hindi: Tarvar

Malayalam: Avara

Sinhalese: Ranawara

24

Cassia fistula L.

Family: Fabaceae (Leguminosae)

Synonyms:

Bactyrilobium fistula Willd.

Cassia bonplandiana DC.

Cassia excelsa Kunth

Cassia excelsa Schrad. is a synonym of Senna spectabilis var.excelsa

Cassia fistuloides Collad.

Cassia rhombifolia Roxb.

Cathartocarpus excelsus G. Don

Cathartocarpus fistula Pers.

Cathartocarpus fistuloides (Collad.) G. Don

Cathartocarpus rhombifolius G. Don

"Cassia fistulata" is a lapsus.

Common names:

English: golden shower tree, golden shower, golden shower cassia or Indian laburnum

Arabic: khiār shambar (خيار شمبر)

Assamese: xonaru (সোণাৰু)

Bengali: sonalu, bandar lathi, amaltas

Chinese: ā bó lè (阿勃勒: Taiwan), là cháng shù (sausage tree, 腊肠树)

Gujarati : garmalo (ગરમાળો)

Hindi: bendra lathi (or bandarlauri), dhanbaher (or dhanbohar), girimaloah

Hindi and Urdu: amaltās (अमलतास)

Japanese: nanban saikachi (ナンバン サイカチ, Kanji: 南蛮皀莢)

Khmer: reachapreuk (រាជព្រឹក្ស - rajavriksha)

Kannada: Kakke (ಕಕ್ಕೆ ಮರ)

Lao: khoun (ຄູນ)

Marathi: bahava (बहावा)

Malayalam: kanikkonna (or kani konna കണിക്കൊന്ന: Kerala), Vishu konna(വിഷുക്കൊന്ന)

Meitei (Manipuri): chahui

Nepali: amaltash, rajbriksya

Sanskrit: aragvadha, chaturangula, kritamala, suvarnaka

Sinhalese: aehaela, ඇහැල (or ahalla), Ehela

Tamil: konrai (கொன்றை)

Telugu:raela (రేల)

Thai: rachapruek (ราชพฤกษ์), khun (คูน), dok khuen (ดอกแคน)

25

Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.

Family: Apiaceae or Umbelliferae

Synonyms: Hydrocotyle asiatica

Common names:

Hindi: Brahmi booti

Perook - Manipuri

Sleuk tracheakkranh - Khmer ស្លឹកត្រចៀកក្រាញ់

Chinese: 崩大碗 ("chipped big bowl")

Tamil: Vallaarai வல்லாரை

Bangladesh: Thankuni pata

Sinhala: Gotu kola ගොටුකොල

Asiatic pennywort

Indian pennywort

Chinese: Luei gong gen(雷公根, literally "thunder god's root")

Filipino: Takip-kohol

Antanan

Ayurveda: Manduki, divya, maha aushadhi

Pegagan

'Pegaga

Kula kud

Myanmar: Mying Khwar ျမင္းခြာ

Thai: Bai bua bok ใบบัวบก

Brahmi (shared with Bacopa monnieri)

Vietnamese: Rau má (mother vegetable)

Assamese:Manimuni মানিমুনি

Telugu: Saraswathi plant సరస్వతీ ఆకు

Kannada: Ondelaga ಒಂದೆಲಗ

Konkani: Ekpanni ಒಂದೆಲಗ

Tulu: Timare

Mayalam: Kudakan or kudangal കുടക൯ / കുടങ്ങല്

Philipines: Yahong yahong

Korean: 병풀

26

Cinchona succirubra

Family: Rubiaceae

Synonyms: Cinchona pubescens Vahl

Common Names: Red bark , Peruvian bark , Jesuit's bark , China bark , cinchona bark , quina-quina , fever tree.

Sinhalese: Sincona

27

Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.

Family: Lauraceae

Synonyms: Cinnamomum verum

Common names:

Cinnamon; True Cinnamon, Ceylon Cinnamon

28

Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f.

Family: Rutaceae

Common names:

Sinhalese: Dehi

Tamil: Periya yelumichai

Italian: limone

Arabic: laymūn or līmūn ليمون

Chinese: Chuan Xin Lian (穿心蓮)

Persian: līmūn لیمو

Sanskrit निम्ब (nimbū, “lime”)

29

Coleus amboinicus Lour.

Family: Lamiaceae

Synonyms: Plectranthus amboinicus

Common names:

country borage (India, South Africa, US)

French Thyme (South Africa, US)

Indian borage , Indian mint , Mexican mint , soup mint , Spanish thyme ; big thyme (Grenada); also broadleaf thyme; Cuban oregano; Mexican thyme; Queen of herbs; three-in-one herb; allherb; mother of herbs;

French: orielle;

German: Jamaika-Thymian;

Hindi: पथरचुर pathorchur /patharcur , patta ajavayin

Javanese: daun kutjing (note, this is spelled in an old orthography of the Indonesian language, currently used name will be different);

Khmer: chi(r) slök krahs, chi(r) krâ-ôb, chi(r) trâchi:ëk chru:k

Malay: bangun bangun, dacon ajenton

Portuguese: Hortelã-da-folha-grande Brasil

Spanish: orégano de Cartagena (Cuba)

Philippines: toronjil de limón

Puerto Rico: orégano brujo, orégano

Swedish: kryddkarlbergare, Tagalog

Sinhalese: Kapparawalliya

Tamil : கற்பூரவள்ளி karpooravalli / karpuravalli, omavalli

Tongan: pāsiole, kaloni

Vietnamese: cân dây lá, húng chanh

30

Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn.)Colebr.

Family: Menispermaceae

Synonyms:

Coscinium walliichianum Miers; Coscinium blumeanum (non Miers ex Hook.f. et Thomson) Miq.

Common names:

Malaysia: Mengkunyit, sekunyit, kekunyit, badi

English: False calumba, Ceylon calumba root, turmeric tree

Sinhalese: Venivel or Weniwel (Sinhalese)

Tamil: Atturam or Kadari

31

Cryptocoryne spiralis

Family: Araceae

Synonyms:

Common names:

Crypts

English: "water trumpet"

Sinhales: Athividayan

Tamil: Nattativadayam

32

Curculigo orchioides Geartn.

Family: Hypoxidaceae

Synonyms:

Curculigo malabarica Wight, Hypoxis orchioides Kurz.

Common names:

Malaysia: Lemba

English: Black musale, musali, Golden-eye grass rhizome

Hindi: Kali musli, Krishna musli, musali kand

Chinese: Xian mao

Philippines: Taloangiames

Sinhalese: Bintal

33

Curcuma aromatica Salisb.

Family: Zingiberaceae

Synonyms:

Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen & C.Ling

Curcuma zedoaria Roxb

Common names:

English: wild turmeric, aromatic turmeric

Hindi: जंगली हल्दी jangli haldi

Manipuri: লম যাঈঙাঙ lam yaingang

Gujarati: zedoari

Tamil: கஸ்தூதி மஞ்ஜள் kasturimanjal

Malayalam: കസ്തൂരി മഞ്ഞൾ / കാട്ടുമഞ്ഞൾ kasthoori manjnjaL / kaaTTu manjnjaL

Telugu: kasthuri pasupa

Kannada: kasthuri arishina

Sinhalese: Kaha

34

Cyperus rotundus (Rottb.)Kukenth.

Family: Cyperaceae

Common names:

coco-grass, purple nut sedge, red nut sedge

Khmer/Cambodian: kravanh chruk

Sinhalese: Kalanduru

35

Desmodium triflorum (L.)DC.

Family: Fabaceae (alt. Leguminosae)

Synonyms:

Desmodium parvifolium Blanco

Desmodium granulatum (Schumach. and Thonn.) Walp.

Hedysarum triflorum L.

Meibomia triflora (L.) Kuntze

Common names:

English: creeping tick trefoil, three-flower beggarweed

Portuguese: amor-do-campo

Spanish: hierba cuartillo

Indonesia: daun mules, jukut jarem, delilan

Malaysia: rumput barek putih, sisek tenggiling

Philippines: kaliskis-dalag, himbispuyo, gumadep

Cambodia: smau hae lolook

Thailand: ya-klethoi, ya-tanhoi, ya-tansai

Vietnam: trang qua ba hoa

India: kuddalia

Palau: olmud

Fiji: konikoni, vakathengu

Tonga: kihikihi

Sinhalese: Undupiyaliya

Tamil: Sirupulladi

36

Dolichos biflorus L.

Family: Fabaceae

Synonyms:

Phaseolus cylindricus L.; Vigna catjang (Burm. f.) Walp.; Vigna cylindrica (L.) Skeels;

Common names:

Sanskrit: Kulattha

English: Horse gram

Kannada: Huruli

Hindi: Kulathi

Sinhalese: Kollu

37

Eclipta prostrata L.

Family: Asteraceae

Synonyms:

Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. (accepted), E. erecta L., Verbesina alba L., V. prostrata L., Wedelia psammophila Poepp.

Common name:

Malaysia: Urang-uring

English: Eclipta, False daisy, Swamp daisy, White eclipta

Chinese: Hann-lian-tsao

Sanskrit: Bhringaraja, Gunta kalagara, Karisha langanni, Kesharaji.

Hindi: Bhangra, Mochkand, Babri

French: Éclipte blanche

Sinhalese: Keekirindiya

Tamil: Kaikeshi

38

Emblia ribes Burm. f.

Family: Myrsinaceae

Common names:

False Black Pepper, White-flowered Embelia, or Embelia

Sanaskrit: viḍaṅga, vella

Hindi: vāyviḍaṅg, bhābhīraṅg

Malayalam: viḻāl

Sinhalese: Walangasal

Tamil: Kattukodi, vāyu viḷaṅkā

39

Eugenia caryophyllata

Family: Myrtaceae

Synonyms:

Syzygium aromaticum; (L.) Merrill & Perry; Caryophyllus aromaticus L.; Eugenia aromatica (L.) Baill; Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb; Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S. G. Harrison

Common name:

English: Cloves

Sinhalese: Karabu, Karabu-neti

Tamil: Ilavangppu, Kiramb

40

Euphorbia hirta L.

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Common names:

Cats hair, asthma weed, basri dudhi, chara, malnommee, pill - bearing spurge, patikan kerbau, patikan kebo, fei yang cao, gelang susu, amampat chaiarisi, erva de santa luzia, fei-yang ts'ao, Dugudhika, snakeweed.

Sinhalese: Kapumkeeriya

Tamil: Amumpatchaiyarissi

41

Evolvulus alsinoides L.

Family: Convolvulaceae

Common names:

English: slender dwarf morning-glory

Hindi: śyāmākrāntā, viṣṇukrāntā

Malayalm: viṣṇukkṛānti, kṛṣṇakṛānti, viṣṇukḷānti

Skt: viṣṇukrāntā

Sinhalese: Vishnukranthi

Tamil: Vishnukarandi, or viṣṇukkirānti

Other names: Shankhpushpi, Shankhahuli.

42

Ficus benghalensis L.

Family: Moraceae

Synonyms:

Ficus indica L. Ficus lasiophylla Link, Ficus banyana Oken.

Common names:

Indian Banyan; Bengal fig, Indian fig

Other name: bargad/برگد, borh/بوڑھ, wad (Marathi:वड )

Kannada: aalada mara

Malayalam: aalmaram

Sinhalese: Nuga

Sanskrit: nyagrodha.

Tamil: aalamaram (ஆலமரம்)

43

Ficus racemosa L.

Family: Moraceae

Synonyms: Ficus glomerata Roxb;

Common names:

Cluster Fig Tree or Goolar (Gular) Fig;

Sinhalese: Attikka

Sanskrit: uḍumbara or udumbara

44

Gloriosa superba L.

Family: Liliaceae

Synonyms:

G. rothschildiana (or G. superba ‘Rothschildiana’), G. simplex, G. virescens, G. abyssinica, G. carsonii and G. lutea.

Common names:

English: flame lily, fire lily, gloriosa lily, glory lily, superb lily, climbing lily, and creeping lily

Hindi: Kalihari, Kathari, Kulhari, Languli

Gujerati: Dudhio Vacchonag

Canarase: Akkitang hall, Huliyuguru, Nangulika, Sivasaktibalb

Marathi: Indai, Karianag, Khadyanag

Sanskrit: Agnimukhi, Garbhapatani, Kalikari

Sinhalese: Niyangala

Tamil: Akkinichilam or Anaravam

45

Gmelina arborea Roxb.

Family: Verbenaceae

Synonyms:

Gmelina arborea Roxb. var. canescens Haines

Gmelina arborea Roxb. var. glaucescens C. B. Clarke

Gmelina rheedii Hook.

Common names:

English: Beechwood, Gmelina, Goomar teak, Kashmir tree, Malay beechwood, White teak, Vemane

Assamese: Gomari

Bengali: gamari, gambar, gumbar

Gujarati: Shewan, Sivan

Hindi: gamhar, khamara, khumbhari, sewan

Kannada: kooli mara,Shivane mara, kumbuda, kumulu

Kasmiri: mara, shivani

Malayalam: kumbil, kumbulu, kumilu, kumiska, pokki

Marathi: shivan, siwan

Oriya: bhodropornni, gambari, kumar

Punjabi: gumhar, kumhar

Sanskrit: गम्भारी gambhari, सिन्धुपर्णी sindhuparni, सिन्धुवेषणम् sindhuveshanam, स्तूलत्वचा stulatvach

Sinhala: Demata or Et-demata

Tamil: kumla, kumalamaram, kumil(spelled as "Kumizh" nowadays as the nearest phonetic), Venthekku, ummithekku; Telugu- gumartek, gummadi, summadi

Languages of South-east Asia:

Burmese: ယမနေ [jamanei][tone?]

Laotian: ໂຊ [sóː]

Mon: ရမ္မာ [rɔmma]

Filipino: Yemane

Indonesian: Jati putih

46

Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.)R Br.ex Schult.

Family: Apocynaceae

Synonyms: Marsdenia geminate; Gymnema geminatum R.Br.

Common names:

Sinhalese: Masbedda, Bin-nuga

Tamil: Adigam

Pinyin, China: chi geng teng

47

Hemidesmus indicus (L.)Ait.f.

Family: Asclepiadaceae

Synonyms: Periploca indica

Common names:

Assamese: Vaga Sariva

Bengali: Anantamul, Shvetashariva

English: Indian Sarasa Parilla

Gujrati: Upalsari, Kabri

Hindi: Anantamul

Kannada: Namada veru, Bili Namadaberu, Anantamool, Sogadeberu, Namadaberu

Kashmiri: Anant mool

Malayalam: Nannari, Nannar, Naruneendi

Marathi: Upalsari, Anantamula

Oriya: Dralashvan Lai Anantamool

Punjabi: Anantmool, Ushbah

Sanskrit: Anant¡, Gopasut¡, S¡riv¡

Tamil: Ven Nannar, Valakan

Telugu: Sugandhi Pala, Tella Sugandhi

Urdu/ Hindi: Ushba

Sinhalese: Iramusu

48

Hibiscus abelmoschus L.

Family: Malvaceae

Synonyms: Abelmoschus moschatus

Common names:

Abelmosk, Ambrette seeds, Annual hibiscus, Bamia Moschata, Galu Gasturi, Muskdana, Musk mallow, Musk okra, Musk seeds, Ornamental okra, Rose mallow seeds, Tropical jewel hibiscus, Yorka okra

Sinhalese: Kapukinissa

49

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.

Family: Malvaceae

Common names:

Rose mallow, Chinese hibiscus, China rose and shoe flower;

zhū jǐn 朱槿, which literally means "vermilion hibiscus".

Chinese: fú sāng 扶桑, fó sāng 佛桑, chì jǐn 赤槿, sāng jǐn 桑槿, rì jí 日及, huā shàng huā 花上花, zhào diàn hóng 照殿紅, zhuàng yuán hóng 狀元紅, dà hóng huā 大紅花

Marathi: Jaswand

Bengali: জবা (Jaba)

Tamil : Sembaruthi-செம்பருத்தி in

Hindi: गुड़हल, गुड़हर, अड़हुल, जपा,[5] जवा कुसुम[6]

Malayalam : Chemparathy - ചെമ്പരത്തി

Oriya: Mondaro

Sinhala: Wada Mal

Telegu: Mamdaram (మందారం)

Indonesia: Kembang Sepatu

Filipino: Gumamela

50

Indigofera tinctoria L.

Family: Fabaceae (Leguminosae)

Synonyms: Indigofera sumatrana Gaertner.

Common names:

True indigo

Malaysia: Nila, tarum.

English: Common indigo, Indian indigo.

Indonesia: Tom jawa, tarum alus, tarum kaju.

Philippines: Tagung-tagung (Bisaya), taiom (Ilokano), taiung (Pampango).

Cambodia: Trôm.

Laos: Khaam

Sinhalese: Nil-awariya

Thailand: Khraam (General), na-kho (Karen, Mae Hong Son).

Vietnam: Chàm, chàm nhuôm

51

Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq.

Family: Convolvulaceae

Synonyms: Ipomoea paniculata (L.) R.Br., Batatas paniculata (L.) , Ipomoea digitata L. var. digitata, Ipomoea digitata L., Convolvulus paniculatus L.

Common names:

The giant potato

Sinhalese: Kiribadu

52

Kaempferia Galanga L.

Family: Zingiberaceae

Synonyms:

Alpinia sessilis J.König;

Kaempferia humilis Salisb.

Kaempferia latifolia Donn ex Hornem.

Kaempferia plantaginifolia Salisb.

Kaempferia procumbens Noronha

Common name:

kencur, aromatic ginger, sand ginger, cutcherry or resurrection lily

Sinhalese: Hinguru piyali

Tamil: Kacholam

It is also used in Chinese cooking and Chinese medicine, and is sold in Chinese groceries under the name sha jiang (Chinese: 沙姜; pinyin: shajiang), while the plant itself is referred to as shan nai (Chinese: 山柰; pinyin: shannai).

53

Litsea glutinosa (Lour.)C.B.Rob.

Family: Lauraceae

Synonyms:

Litsea chinensis Lamk

Litsea glabrania A.L. Juss.

Litsea tetranther (Wild.) Pers.

Litsea germinata Blume

Litsea sebifera Blume

Common names:

English: Indian laurel, pond spice

Philippines: sablot

Indonesia: wuru lilin, huru tankalak, malih

Marathi: Upalsari, Anantamula

Malaysia: malek

Sinhalese: Bombi, Bomi

Tamil: Ama, Elambiragi

Thailand: mimen, muthaluang, thang-buan

54

Lycopodium phlegmaria L.

Family: Huperziaceae

Synonyms:

Huperzia phlegmaria (L.) Rothm

Lepidotis phlegmaria (L.) P.Beauv.

Lycopodium phlegmaria L. (basionym)

P. phlegmaria (L.) U.Sen & T.Sen

Urostachys phlegmaria (L.) Herter ex Nessel

Common names:

coarse tassel fern, or common tassel fern

Sinhalese: Maha-hedaya

55

Lycopodium pulcherrimum

Family: Lycopodiaceae

Synonyms:

Huperzia pulcherrima (Wall. ex Hook. & Grev.) Pic. Serm.

Huperzia pulcherrima (Wall. ex Hook. & Grev.) T. Sen & U. Sen

Phlegmariurus pulcherrimus (Wall. ex Hook. & Grev.) Á. Löve & D. Löve

*Urostachys pulcherrimus (Wall. ex Hook. & Grev.) Herter

!Urostachys pulcherrimus (Wall. ex Hook. & Grev.) Herter ex Nessel

Common Names:

Hayata

Sinhalese: Kuda-hedaya

56

Melaleuca leucadendron

Family: Myrtaceae

Common names:

Cajeput Tree

Sinhalese: Lothsumbul

Tamil: Kaiyappudai

57

Moringa oleifera Lam.

Family: Moringaceae

Common names:

Sinhalese: Murunga

Tamil: Murungai

Mandarin: la mu

Cantonese: lat mok

English: moringa, "horseradish tree", drumstick tree

58

Munronia pinata

Family: Meliaceae

Common names:

Sinhalese: Binkohomba

Chinese: yu zhuang di huang lian

59

Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.

Family: Rutaceae

Common names:

Sinhalese: Karapincha

English: Curry leaf-tree

Indian names: karepaku (Andhra Pradesh); narasingha, bishahari (Assam); barsanga, kartaphulli (Bengal); gorenimb, kadhilimbdo (Gujrat); mitha neem, gandhla, gandhela, gandhelu (Himachal Pradesh); kathnim, mitha neem, kurry patta gandhela, barsanga (Hindi); karibeva (Karnataka); kariveppilei (Kerala); gandhela, gandla, gani (Kumaon); bassan, basango, bhursanga (Orissa); surabhinimba, kalasaka, mahanimb (Sanskrit); karivempu, karuveppilei (Tamilnadu)

60

Myristica fragrans Houtt.

Family: Myristicaceae

Synonyms: Myristica officinalis L.

Common names:

UK: mace, nutmeg, nutmeg tree

USA: nutmeg

France: muscadier

Germany: Muskatbaum

Uruguay, Spain: nuez moscada

61

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.

Family: Nelumbonaceae

Common names:

Sinhalese: Nelum, Tamburu

Tamil: Ambal

names including Indian lotus, sacred lotus, bean of India, or simply lotus (padma पद्म) has many synonyms. Since the to synonyms : ambuja, neeraj , pankaj, pankaja, kamal, kamala, kunala, aravind, arvind, nalin, nalini and saroja

62

Ocimum sanctum L.

Family: Lamiaceae

Synonyms: Periploca indica

Common names:

Sinhalese: Maduruthala

Holy Basil, tulsi, or tulasī

Thai: กะเพรา kraphao

63

Ophiorrhiza mungos L.

Family: Rubiaceae

Common names:

Sinhalese: Datketiya

pinyin, China: she gen cao

64

Pandanus tectorius Soland ex Parkinson

Family: Pandanaceae

Synonyms: Periploca indica

Common names:

Sinhalese: Vatakeyya/ Mudu-keiya

English: Screw Pine

Tamil: Thalamvedi/Kaidai

S.inhalese: Dlapushpa/Jakbuka

Sanskrit : Shucikipushpa

Assamese : Katki

Bengali : Katki

Gujrati : Kevado

Hindi : Kevada

Kannada : Kadajlmudu, Talehuvu

Kashmiri : ----

Malayalam : Pookaitha

Marathi : Kewda

Oriya : Ketaki, Kia

Punjabi : Keora

Tamil : Tazhai

Telugu : Mogali

65

Phyllanthus emblica L.

Family: Phyllanthaceae

Synonyms: : Emblica officinalis

Common names:

English: The Indian Gooseberry

Sanskrit: amalika (अम्लिका)

Hindi: aamla (आमला)

Gujrati: aamla (આમળાં)

اردو: aavnlaa (awla) (or awla)

Marathi: aavalaa (आवळा) (or awla)

Garo language: ambare (अमबरे)

Konkani: avaalo (आवाळो)

Mizo: sunhlu

Nepali: amala (अमला)

Bengali: amloki (আমলকী)

Assamese: amlakhi

Oriya: amla (ଅଁଳା)

Punjabi: Aula

Malayalam: nellikka (നെല്ലിക്ക)

Manipuri: heikru

Khasi: sohmylleng

Telugu: usiri (ఉసిరి కాయ) (or usirikai)

Tamil and Kannada: nellikkai (நெல்லிக்காய்/ ನೆಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾಯಿ/ ಗುಡ್ದದ ನೆಲ್ಲಿ) nellikkaai or nellikaayi)

Sinhala: nelli (නෙල්ලි)

Lao: mak kham bom

Thai: ma kham pom (มะขามป้อม)

Chinese: anmole (庵摩勒)

Khmer: Kantout Prei (កន្ទួតព្រៃ)

Tibetan: skyu ru ra (སྐྱུ་རུ་ར་)

Malay: melaka, A state in Malaysia, Malacca was named after this tree.

Myanmar: zee phyu thee (ဆီးၿဖဴသီး)

66

Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd.

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Synonyms:

Diasperus debilis (Klein ex Willd.) Kuntze

Phyllanthus boninsimae Nakai

Phyllanthus leai S.Moore

Phyllanthus niruri var. debilis (Klein ex Willd.) Müll.Arg.

Phyllanthus niruri var. javanicus Müll.Arg

Common Names:

Sinhalese: Niruri, Pitawakka

Tamil: Keelkaay, Nelli

67

Piper cubeba L. f.

Family: Piperaceae

Tailed pepper

Synonyms:

Cubeba officinalis Miquel

Piper caudatum Houtt.

Common names:

Malaysia: Kemukus, cabai berekur, lada berekur

English: Java pepper, cubebs, tailed pepper

Indonesia: Kemukus, cabai Jawa

French: Poivre de Java

Sinhalese: Siviya

Tamil: Thippli

Hindi: Kabab-chini

Vietnamese: Tieu that

Arabic: Kababah

Chinese: Bi ji, Bi cheng qie [3]

68

Piper longum L.

Family: Piperaceae

Common names:

Long pepper (Piper longum), (Pippali), sometimes called Indian long pepper

Sinhalese: Tippili

Tamil/Malayalam: Pippali

69

Piper nigrum L.

Family: Piperaceae

Common names: Black pepper

Sinhalese: Gammiris

Tamil: Aguttam, Arisu

70

Plectranthus zeylanicus Benth.

Family: Lamiaceae

Synonyms: Plectranthus hadiensis var. tomentosus (Benth. ex E.Mey.) Codd

Common names:

Sinhalese: Iriweriya

Tamil: Valakan

Sanskrit: Valakan

71

Plumbago indica L.

Family: Plumbaginaceae

Common names:

USA: whorled plantain

Sinhalese: Ruthnitul

Tamil: Cenkodiveli

72

Plumbago zeylanica L.

Family: Plumbaginaceae

Common names:

Ceylon Leadwort or Doctorbush

English: plumbago or wild plumbago

Transcribed Chinese: bai hua dan

Swedish: vit blyblomma

Sinhalese: Elanetol, Sudunitul

Tamil: Adigarradi, Akkini

73

Pogestemon heyneanus

Family: Lamiaceae

Common names:

Pachouli; False Patchouli, Indian Patchouli, Java Patchouli

Sinhalese: Kollankola

74

Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre

Family: Fabaceae (Leguminosae)

Synonyms: Periploca indica

Pongamia glabra (Vent)

Derris indica (Lamk.)

Common names:

Sinhalese: Karanda or Magulkaranda

Tamil: Agirunanandam

75

Pterocarpus santalinus L.f.

Family: Fabaceae (Leguminosae)

Common names:

English: Red Sanders or Red Sandalwood

Sinhalese: Rathhandun

Telugu: రక్తచందనము (raktachandana)

Tamil: சிவப்புச்சந்தனம் (ciwappuccantanam)

76

Punica granatum L.

Family: Lythraceae (Punicaceae)

Common names:

Pomegranate

Sanskrit: dadima or dalim

Persian: dulim or dulima

French: grenade

Spanish: granada (the fruit), granado (the plant)

Dutch: granaatappel

German: granatapfel

Italian: melogranato, melograno granato, pomo granato, or pomo punico

Indonesia: gangsalan

Thailand: tab tim

Malaya: delima

Brazilian: roma, romeira or romazeira

Samoan: limoni

Sinhalese: Delun

Tamil: Kalumal

The Quecchi Indian name in Guatemala is granad

The generic term, Punica, was the Roman name for Carthage from whence the best pomegranates came to Italy.

77

Rauvolfia serpentia (L.)Benth.ex.Kurz

Family: Apocynaceae

Synonyms: Ophioxylon serpentinum L.

Common names:

Chinese: 蛇根木 shégēn mù, 印度蛇木 yìndù shémù

English: Snakewood

Indonesia: Pule pandak (Javanese)

Thailand: Khem daeng (Northern), ra yom (Central), ka yom (Peninsular)

Vietnam: Ba g[aj]c [aas] d[ooj], ba g[aj]c hoa d[or], ba g[aj]c thu[oos]c.

Sinhalese: Ekaweriya, Rat-ekaweriya

Tamil: Sovannamilbori

78

Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.)Kuntze

Family: Acanthaceae

Common names:

Sinhalese: Anitta

Tamil: Anichai, Kaligai

79

Ricinus communis L.

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Common names:

Arabic: خروع‎ Kharwaʻ /xarwaʕ/

Armenian: Գերչակ

Brazil: mamona, carrapateira, rícino

Chinese: 蓖麻

Colombia: higuerilla

Dhivehi: Aamanaka, އާމަނަކަ

El Salvador: higuerillo

Ethiopia: Gulo

Greece: Retsinoladia, Ρετσινολαδιά

Haitian Creole: Masketi

Hebrew: Kikayon, קיקיון

India:

Assamese - Era-gach

Bengali - Erando, Veranda

Gujarati - Divel, Eranda (એરંડા)

Hindi - Arandi

Kannada - Harallu

Malayalam - Chittamankku or Avanakkanna

Marathi - Errand

Oriya - Jada

Sanskrit - éraṇḍam एरण्डम्

Tamil - Aamanakku (ஆமணக்கு)

Telugu - Aavadam, Aamudalu

Indonesia: Jarak (Java), Dulang/ Gloah (Sumatra)

Iran: Karchak, کرچک

Japan: 唐胡麻 Tougoma, 箆麻 Hima

Kenya:

Kikuyu - Barĩkĩ

Kurdish: Gerchek, گهرچهک

Korean: 아주까리 Ajukari, 피마자(蓖麻子) Pimaja

Maltese: Żejt ir-Riegnu

Mexico: Higuerilla

Nicaragua: Higuera or higueria

Philippines: Tangan-tangan

Poland: Rącznik

Portugal: rícino

Pushtu: arhanda. by Nizar

Puerto Rico: higuereta

Romania: ricin

Russia: клещевина

Seri: hehe caacoj

Sinhala: endaru, thel-endaru

Turkish: Hint yağı bitkisi

Thai: ละหุ่ง

Venezuela: tártago

80

Salacia reticulata Wight

Family: Hippocrateaceae

Common names:

Sanskrit: Vairi or Pitika

Gujarati: Saptarangi

Tamil: Ponkoranti

Telugu: Anukudu cettu

Kannada: Ekanayakam

Malayalam: Ekanayakam, Ponkoranti, or Koranti

Sinhalese: Kothala-himbutu

81

Santalum album L.

Family: Santalaceae

Common names:

Hindi: चंदन Chandan, संदल Sandal

Manipuri: চংদন Chandan

Marathi: चंदन Chandan, gandhachakoda

Tamil: Anukkam, Asam, சந்தநம் Chandanam

Malayalam: ചംദനമ് Chandanam, chandana-mutti

Telugu: Bhadrasri, చందనమ్ Chandanamu

Kannada: Agarugandha, bavanna, bhadrasri, ಚಂದಲ Chandala

Bengali: চংদন্ Chandan, শ্ৱেতচংদন Shwetchandan

Oriya: valgaka

Urdu: Sandal safaid

Sanskrit: अनिंदिता Anindita, Arishta-phalam, Bhadrasara, चंदनम् Chandanam

Sinhalese: Sudu-handun

82

Saraca asoca

Family: Fabaceae (Leguminosae)

Common names:

Sanskrit: Sita-Ashoka, Anganapriya, Ashopalava, Ashoka, Asupala, Apashaka, Ashoka, Hemapushpa, Kankeli, Madhupushpa, Pindapushpa, Pindipushpa, Vanjula, Vishoka, Vichitra.

Burmese: Thawgabo, Thawka

Hindi: Vand ichitrah, Vanjulam

Bengali: Oshok

Oriya: Ashoka

Tamil: Asogam

Malayalam: Asokam

Telugu: Asokamu, Vanjulamu

Thai: Sokanam โสกน้ำ

Sinhala: Diyaratmal, Diyeratembela

Divehi: Nikabilissa

Kannada: Achenge, Akshth, Ashanke, Kenkalimara

Malay: Gapis, Tengalan

83

Sesamum indicum L.

Family: Pedaliaceae

Synonyms:

Sesamum africanum, Sesamum brasiliense, Sesamum luteum, Sesamum malabaricum.

Common names:

Persian: Konjed کنجد Juljulan, Zelzlane

Arabic: Sumsum, Simsim جلجلان, سمسم

Armenian: Kunjut, Shushma Քունջութ, կունճուտ, շուշմա

Chinese (Mandarin): Zhī Má, Hú Má 芝麻, 胡麻 Goma, Shima 胡麻

Japanese: ゴマ, シマ Chamggae, Cham-kkae

Korean: Ssisaem, Ggae, Kkae 참깨, 깨씨, 씨샘, 깨

Spanish: Ajonjolí, Sésamo

French: Teel, Till, Sésame

Magyar: szezámmag

Konkani: Teel, Till

Urdu: Til تل

Sanskrit: तिल

Hindi: তিল

Oriya: Raashi ରାଶି

Sinhala: Thala තල

Telugu: Nuvvulu నువ్వులు

Tamil: Ellu எள்

Malayalam: എള്ള്

Kannada: ಎಳ್ಳು

84

Sida cordifolia L.

Family: Malvaceae

Common names:

Sub: Gulipas

India: Bala

English: Country mallow, Flannel weed, Heart-leaf sida,Indian ephedra

Chinese: Ke dong

Sinhalese: Babila

Tamil: Arivalmandippundu

85

Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad.

Family: Solanaceae

Synonyms: Solanum surattense Burm.f.

Common names:

Sanskrit: kaṇṭakārī, nidigdhikā

Hindi: reṃganī, kaṭelī, kaṭṭāy

Mal: kaṇṭakāriccuṇṭa, kaṇṭakārivaḻutana, kaṇṭankattiri

English: Yellow-berried nightshade

Sinhalese: Katu-wel-batu

Tamil: Kandangattari, Sutturam, Udaravani

86

Solanum nigrum L.

Family: Solanaceae

Common names:

Kalukamberiya

English: Black Night Shade, Makoy, Deadly Nightshade

87

Solanum trilobatum L.

Family: Solanaceae

Common names:

English: Purple Fruited Pea Eggplant, Thai nightshade

Marathi: mothiringnee, thoodalam

Tamil: Tuduvalai, Nittidam, Sandunayattan, Surai

Malayalam: tutavalam, putharichunda, putricunta, puttacunta, tudavalam

Telugu: alarkapatramu, kondavuchinta, mullamusti

Kannada: Kakamunji, Ambusondeballi

Oriya: bryhoti

Sanskrit: achuda, agnidamani, agnidamini, alarka, vallikantakarika

88

Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight and Arn.

Family: Combretaceae

Common names:

Sinhalese: Kumbuk

English: arjuna or arjun tree

Tamil and Malayalam: neer maruthu

Rajasthan: kohda

89

Terminalia belerica (Gaertn) Roxb.

Family: Combretaceae

Common names:

Bulu; also known as bastard myrobalan

Sanskrit: Vibhitaka विभितक, Aksha अक्ष

Hindi: baheḍā, bhairā

Bengali: baheṛā, baẏṛā

Tamil: tāṉṟikkāy, tāṉṉi

Mal: tānni, tānnikka

English: Beleric myrobalan, bastard myrobalan

90

Treminalia chebula Retz.

Family: Combretaceae

Common names:

English: Yellow Myrobalan or Chebulic Myrobalan

Urdu: ہریڑ Hareer

Chinese: 诃子 he zi

Gujarati: Himmej

Sanskrit: harītakī हरीतकी

Tibetan: A-ru-ra

Hindi: Harad, Haritaki, or Harada

Kannada: Alalekaayi

Tamil: Kadukkai

Malayalam: Kadukka

Bengali: Horitoky

Assamese: Hilikha

Sinhalese: Aralu

Telugu: Karakkaya

91

Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) Miers ex Hook.f. & Thoms.

Family: Menispermaceae

Common names:

Sanskrit: Guduchi, Amrita, Amritavalli, Madhuparni, Guduchika, Chinnobhava, Vatsadani, Tantrika, Kundalini, Chakralakshanika

Bengali: Gulancha

Hindi: Gurcha

Gujarati: Galac

Telugu: Thippateega

Kannada: Amrutavalli

Kashmiri: Amrita, Gilo

Malayalam: Chittamrutu

Marathi: Gulvel

Oriya: Guluchi

Punjabi: Gilo

Tamil: Seendal, Seendil Kodi or Amridavalli

Assamese: Siddhilata, Amarlata

English: Heartleaf Moonseed, Tinospora

Sinhalese: Rasakinda

92

Tragia involucrate L.

Family: Euphorbiaceae (Castor family)

Common names:

English: Climbing Nettle, Indian Stinging Nettle, Canchorie root-plant

Assamese: dumuni chorat

Bengali: বিছুটি bichuti

Hindi: बढन्त barhanta, पीत पर्णी pit parni

Kannada: ತುರಿಕೆ ಬಳ್ಳಿ turike balli

Malayalam: കൊടിത്തൂവ Kodithoova, കൊടുത്തൂവ Koduthoova

Marathi: आग पान aag paan, आग्या aagya, कळलावी kallaavi, लघुमेडशिंगी laghumedhshingi

Nepali: उट कटेरी ut kateri

Oriya: kasalakku

Sanskrit: आगमावर्ता aagmavarta, दुःस्पर्ष duhsparsha, कषाग्निः kashagnih, वृश्चिकाच्छद vrischikacchad, वृश्चिकाली vrischikali, वृश्चिकापत्री vrischikapatri

Sinhalese: Welkahambiliya

Tamil: காஞ்சொறி kanchori or Ambu

Telugu: తేలుకొండిచెట్టు telukondicettu

93

Trichosanthes cucumerina L.

Family: Cucurbitaceae

Common names:

English: snake gourd (var. anguina), serpent gourd, chichinga, and padwal

Nepali: chichindo

Oriya: chhachindra

Bengali: chichinga or chichinge

Sambalpuri: purla

Telugu: potlakaaya (పొట్లకాయ)

Sinhala: pathola(පතෝල)

Tamil: pudalankaai (புடலங்காய்)

Assamese: dhunduli

Kannada : paduvalakaayi(ಪಡುವಲ ಕಾಯಿ)

Malayalam: padavalanga (പടവലങ്ങ)

94

Vanilla plenifolia Andr.

Family: Orchidaceae

Common names:

Flat-leaved Vanilla, Tahitian Vanilla (for the Pacific stock formerly thought to be a distinct species), and West Indian Vanilla (also used for the Pompona Vanilla, V. pompona). Often, it is simply referred to as "the vanilla".

95

Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less.

Family: Asteraceae

Synonyms

Vernonia vialis DC

Conyza cinerea Linn.

Conyza chinensis Linn.

Eupatorium luzoniensis Llanos

Common names:

English: little ironweed, ash-coloured fleabane, goat-weed.

CHINESE: Jia xian xia cua, Xiao shan hu, Ran se cao, Suo gai ban jiu ju, Guia gun can, Ye xiang niu

GERMAN: Kleines Eisenholz, Kleines Scheinaster

INDIA: Sahdei, Sahaderi, Sandri; Kukseem, Sadori, Naichette, Mukuthipundu, Pirina.

INDONESIA: Buyung-buyung, Sawi Langit, Lidah Anjing, Rumput ekor kuda

JAPAN: Yambaru-higotai

LAOS: Nya Phaen Din Yen

MALAYSIA: Rumput tahi babi, Tambak-tambak, Tambak bukit.

MYANMAR: Byaing-chay-pin

NIGERIA: Bojure

PUERTO RICO: Yerba Socialista

Sinhalese: Monarakudimbiya

Tamil: Puvamkurundal

VIETNAM: Bach Dau Ong

96

Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash

Family: Poaceae

Common names:

vetiver grass , grass-of-smell , smelling grass , grass-of-India , patchouli false (or, simply, patchouli ) and root-of-smell.

97

Vitex negundo L.

Family: Lamiaceae

Common names:

Tamil: நொச்சி, nochhi

Hindi: निर्गुंडी, nirgundi

Sanskrit: सिन्धुवार, sindhuvara

Filipino: lagundî

Sinhala: නික, nika

Bengali: Nishinda (নিশিন্দা)

Nepali: Simali (सिमाली)

98

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

Family: Solanaceae

Common names:

Sanskrit: Ashwagandha;

Hindi: Asgandha;

English: Winter cherry

Arabic: Bahman

Bengali: Ashwagandha

Japanese: Ashwangandha

Nepalese: Aasoganda

Pusta: Kutilad

Sinhalese: Amukkara

Tamil: Amurkkuralekizhangu

Tibetan: Ba-dzi-gandha

Unani: Asgandh volaite

99

Woodfordia fruiticosa (L.) Kurz

Family: Lythraceae

Synonyms:

Lythrum fruticosum L.; Lythrum hunteri DC.; Woodfordia floribunda Salisb.; Woodfordia fruticosa f. genuina Kurz ex Koehne; Woodfordia tomentosa Bedd

Common names:

English: Fire Flame Bush, Red Bell Bush

Hindi: Dhawai

Marathi: Dowari

Tamil: Velakkai

Malayalam: Tatiripuspi

Telugu: Jargi seringi, Godari

Kannada: Tamrapuspi

Oriya: Dhobo

Konkani: Dhauri

Urdu: Jetiko

Gujarati: Dhawani

Sanskrit: Parvati, Bahupuspika

Sinhalese: Malitha

100

Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

Family: Zingiberaceae

Common names:

English: ginger

French: gingembre

Old English: gingifere

Medieval Latin: ginginer

Greek: zingíberis (ζιγγίβερις)

Sinhalese: Inguru

Tamil: 'inji ver' (இஞ்சி வேர்)

Malayalam: 'inji veru' (ഇഞ്ചി വേര്)

 

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